The ISM code dictates that every company operating a vessel, which is subject to the ISM code, should appoint a Designated Person Ashore (DPA). The individuals that are assigned with such a task run the risk of a personal negligence claim made against them whilst performing their duties. This is independent of any responsibilities which might fall on the employer, who may vicariously be liable for employees' actions. Opposing lawyers often target DPAs to commence legal proceedings, because they are considered to be reasonably ''visible'' when compared to discovering the identity of senior staff of a ship owning or management company. ISM- DPA Insurance cover will protect the assured in cases where, following a high profile claim where the owner or manager successfully limited its liability, claimants might seek to increase their potential recovery by suing other entities or persons involved in the incident. Moreover, this cover is also designed to protect the assured from so called "misdirected arrow" claims which would normally only attach to the principal but suing parties may have a hidden agenda. In some countries DPAs have a joint and several liability with their principals and sometimes suing parties are joined into claims as a means of establishing jurisdiction to the claimants' own country. Further implications may occur when the employing shipowner or manager has declared bankruptcy or circumstances where the DPA ceased working for a company after an incident took place. Most importantly, this cover may be triggered in cases where owners and managers' primary insurances and especially Protection & Indemnity cover is prejudiced, for example due to a breach of warranty; thus ISM- DPA insurance cover may well be the DPA's last line of defense.